The problem of unemployment in India is in a very acute form. Thousands of educated and uneducated people roam about without jobs. They are capable of and willing to work but they are without any work. The situation is steadily deteriorating and has now reached a stage when it is impossible for anyone to say what the future of the vast majority of the unemployed is going to be.
There are several causes of unemployment. Two or three of these causes are very prominent. One cause is the maldistribution of the world’s gold supplies, uneven production, and high tariffs. Another cause is the rapid growth of population in India. A third cause is the defects and disabilities under which our country has been labouring for sometime in the past.
Generally speaking, the middle class population is suffering most from lack of employment. To this class belong the educated men of this country. The working classes are fairly well off for a time owing to rise in wages. They can readily obtain employment and earn fair wages. The agricultural population of India gets regular employment from four to six months in the year and then it has a holiday for the rest of the time. The proportion of population which derives its support from agriculture in India is much higher than that which derives its support from industries in India.
India’s income from industries in comparison to the one from agriculture is very low. In such a state of affairs the following measures, if adopted, can prove to be very fruitful.
First, suitable arrangements should be made providing regular employment to the agriculturists in cottage and rural industries during the months in which there is no farm work. This will raise their wages and earnings, affecting their standard of living.
Secondly, the general level of beneficence and enthusiasm of the department of the Government connected with nation-building activities should be raised. Thirdly, certain specific emergency schemes will help to raise the national income in the briefest time possible.
These measures require the most earnest attention of both the Government and the people at the present time. Both the Government and the society should put their heads together and be prepared to co operate with each other. To give a practical shape to these measures, the people should be advised what commodities they can manufacture with profit in order to provide work for the local labour. The Government should help the industry by effective tariff protection. Along with it, the rapid growth of population should be checked. Population may be reduced by emigration and by late marriages. But the most effective method is birth control by using contraceptives.
In order to increase production and enlarge employment, the country should be rapidly industrialised. There should be schemes for rural reconstruction by increasing produce from agriculture and cottage and home industries in rural areas by co-operative efforts of the villagers.
The universities and educational institutions should prepare men and women for vocations and professions. Training in practical aspects should be as varied and complete as possible in accordance with the needs of the society. These educational bodies should set up employment bureaus. Adult education should be advanced sufficiently